Елена (ljwanderer) wrote,
Елена
ljwanderer

Семейный бизнес

Развитие капитализма привлекало в производство все больше рабочих рук. Оплата рабочего труда была настолько мала, что сначала начали работать женщины, а постепенно родителям стали помогать и дети. Считалось, чем раньше ребенок начнет  обучаться труду, тем лучше, это значит , что он раньше будет способен прокормить себя и помочь семье.

Дети стали неотъемлимой частью семейного бизнеса, они работали в качестве помощников, а нередко и наравне со взрослыми членами семьи.

Необходимость посещать школу заслонялась более ощутимой необходимостью вносить вклад в семейный бюджет. Маленькие дети уже воспитывались со знанием, что они должны отрабатывать хлеб, который они едят. Их непросвещенные родители, безуспешно борющиеся с нищетой, ошибочно полагали, что единственный выход из нищеты - это  упорный труд, в то время как школа отбирает время от возможности еще больше трудиться.

Многие из них мечтали как можно раньше отдать детей в работу, пристроив на завод или фабрику .
Таким образом, элементарные знания, которые в начале века предоставляла школа, оказывались недоступными для целого поколения детей начала двадцатого века.


6 p.m., January 31, 1912. Making hair-brushes. Hausner family, 310 East 71st Street, New York. Frank is 6 years old and John is 12. The mother had a sore throat and wore a great rag wrapped around it, but she took it off for the photo. They said they all (including the 6 yr old) worked until 10 p.m. when busy. Their neighbor corroborated this. She said, "It's a whole lot better for the boys than doin' nothin'." The mother said the night work hurts their eyes and John said so too. He was not very enthusiastic about the beauties of work. All together, they make about $2 a week. Father is a motorman.


December 1911. Family of Mrs. Mette making flowers in a very dirty tenement, 302 Mott Street, top floor. Josephine, 13, helps outside school hours until 9 P.M. sometimes. She is soon to be 14 and expects to go to work in an embroidery factory. Says she worked in that factory all last summer. Nicholas, 6 years old and Johnnie, 8 yrs. old. All together earn only 40 to 50 cents a day. Baby (20 months old) plays with the flowers, and they expect he can help a little before long. The father drives a coach (or hack) irregularly.


January 1912, New York City.   "Julin, a 6-year-old child, making pansies for her neighbors on top floor (Gatto), 106 Thompson St. They said she does this every day, 'but not all day.' A growler and dirty beer glasses in the window, unwashed dishes on the stove, clothes everywhere, and flowers likewise."


March 1909. "Widow & boy rolling papers for cigarettes in a dirty New York tenement."


March 1912. "Making dresses for Campbell Kid Dolls in a dirty tenement room, 59 Thompson Street, New York, 4th floor front. Romana family. The older boy, about 12 years old, operates the machine when the mother is not using it, and when she operates, he helps the little ones, 5 and 7 years old, break the thread."


August 1912. Somerville, Massachusetts. "Annie Fedele, 22 Horace Street. Doing crochet on underwear in dirty kitchen. Said she often works here and eats out in the back yard. The people are supposed to do the work only under certain restrictions, but when the inspector and the one who delivers the goods are not around, they do as they please. A good illustration of the difficulty in trying to regulate Home Work."


August 1912. Another picture of little Annie Fedele, 22 Horace Street, Somerville, Massachusetts, doing piecework, which usually entailed putting the finishing touches (buttons, or collar and waistband trim) on a mostly completed article of clothing. The garment manufacturers paid a few cents for each piece that was done.


New York City, January 1913. "1 p.m. Family of Onofrio Cottone, 7 Extra Place, finishing garments in a terribly run down tenement. The father works on the street. The three oldest children help the mother on garments: Joseph, 14, Andrew, 10, Rosie, 7, and all together they make about $2 a week when work is plenty. There are two babies."


New York, December 1911. "Mrs. Lucy Libertine and family: Johnnie, 4 years old; Mary, 6 years; Millie, 9 years, picking nuts in the basement tenement, 143 Hudson Street. Mary was standing in the open mouth of the bag holding the cracked nuts (to be picked), with her dirty street shoes on, and using a huge dirty jackknife. On the right is the cobbler's bench used by shoemaker in this room. They live in dark inner bedrooms, and filth abounds in all the room and in the dark, damp entry."


November 1912. Providence, Rhode Island. "Girls 6, 9 and 11 years old, working on chain-bags in home of Mrs. Antonio Caruso, 132 Knight Street


November 1912. South Framingham, Massachusetts. "Home of Rufine Morini, 6 Coburn Street. Two mothers, three children 10, 8 and 6 years old, working on tags for Dennison. Children anaemic. Make $10 (more or less) a month.




Tags: Дети, США, Фотографы, Хайн
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